1. Startsida
  2. Topics
Speaker on a stage.


The workshop will be organized around a selected number of topics each of them representing a key area of importance for future air pollution strategies and international collaboration.

The topics are concentrated on themes of relevance for both science and policy. The final content of the workshop is being developed by a Program Committee with input from an Advisory Board and will be presented on this webpage at a later stage. Workshop participants are welcome to give their views to the organisers of the workshop.

Saltsjöbaden VII topics


Katja Asmussen, Ministry of Environment, Denmark
Tomas Marquez, United Nations Environment Programme

Air pollution is the world’s greatest environmental health threat. Worldwide 7 million people die prematurely every year due to air pollution, with 90% of them in low- and middle-income countries. In 2021, air pollution was responsible for $8.1 trillion in healthcare costs, or 6.1% of global GDP. Globally and locally, air pollution and climate change are inextricably linked. Reducing the use of fossil fuels is therefore not only a priority for improving air quality, it is also a priority action for climate change mitigation.

The objective of this session is to discuss and come with recommendations on how to develop air quality governance methodologies in airsheds at risk. We will look into the need to improve air quality, data availability, and low-cost solutions to bridge economic barriers. Further, we will discuss policy areas closely linked to air protection, including energy, transport, and future planning of cities where air quality may be a tool to drive change. The session will explore examples and experience from around the world, with speakers from low, middle, and high-income countries.

Examples of themes for the discussions

  • How do we implement WHO's air quality guidelines? Should air quality limit values apply at every micro siting? Or should air quality limit values reflect the air most of us are exposed to most of the time?
  • How can low-cost sensors support air quality management especially in airsheds at risk where cost poses a significant barrier to conducting air quality monitoring?
  • Are sustainable mobility and e-mobility one and the same? Are electric vehicles a solution or a part of the problem to solving the urban air quality challenges?
  • How can the air quality co-benefits of climate action be used as a driver to reduce fossil fuel and individual biomass fuel use in residential heating?

Agenda for the discussions

8.30 – 8:45

Opening, welcome and tour de table, Short introduction by Katja Asmussen, Ministry of the Environment of Denmark & Tomas Marques, UNEP

8:45 – 9:45

Topic 1: WHO guidelines and exposure to air pollution, Moderators: Chris Dore, Aether & Katja Asmussen, Ministry of the Environment of Denmark

Presentation: Study on air quality levels compared to WHO Guidelines in different Nordic Cities (10-15 mins), Steen Solvang Jensen, Aarhus University

Presentation: Should we use separate risk functions for near-source and long-range PM? (10-15 mins), David Segersson, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute

Discussion (30 mins)

9:45 – 10:30

Topic 2: Air quality monitoring in airsheds at risk, Moderators: Jay Turner, Washington University in St Louis & Katherine Hall, UNEP

Presentation: Benefits and limitations of LCS and future perspectives (10-15 mins), Video: Low cost sensor networks in Kazakhstan, John Backman, Finnish Meteorological Institute

Presentation: Air quality monitoring with low-cost sensor networks – experience from Tajikistan (10-15 mins), Khurshed Alimov, Youth Group for the Protection of the Environment

Video: Air quality monitoring with low-cost sensor networks – experience from Kyrgyzstan (5 mins), Azhar Baisalova, MoveGreen

Discussion (20-30 mins)

10:30 – 11:00

Coffee break

11:00 – 12:00

Final discussion of Topic 2. (5-15 mins)

Topic 3: Sustainable residential heating I: The climate agenda, air quality co-benefits, and a just transition to clean energy, Moderators: Alexandar Macura, RES Foundation & Aleksandra Siljic Tomic, UNEP

Presentation: Air quality co-benefits as a driver for climate action and an energy transition (15-20 mins), Dale Evarts, Former United States Environmental Protection Agency

Discussion (30 mins)

12:00 – 13:00


13:00 – 14:15

Topic 4: Sustainable residential heating II: Case studies of energy transitions and their air-quality co-benefits, Moderators: Jay Turner, Washington University in St Louis & Khurshed Alimov, Youth Group for Protection of Environment (Tajikistan)

Presentation: Frameworks for stove replacement schemes in the Western Balkans (10 mins), Video: Bez Ž nije u fulu: (Ž)energetska tranzicija! (Without women it’s not to the full: Womenergy Transition), Aleksandar Macura, RES Foundation

Presentation: Serbian efforts towards reducing emissions from residential heating (10 mins), Aleksandra Siljic Tomic, UNEP

Presentation: Reduction of domestic heating emissions in Austria (10 mins), Christian Nagl, Environment Agency Austria (Umweltbundesamt)

Presentation: New Danish regulation of stoves to reduce emissions using “nudging” for behaviour change (10 mins), Brian Kristensen, Danish Ministry of Environment

Discussion (20 mins)

14:15 – 15:00


Topic 5: Sustainable mobility and air quality. Moderators: Katja Schaffer, UN-Habitat

Presentation: Mobility and air quality (10-15 mins), Soraya Smaoun, UNEP + Q&A (10 mins)

Presentation: Sustainable Mobility and Air Quality – Asia status and trends (10-15 mins), Lu Fu, Clean Air Asia

Discussion (20 mins)

15:00 – 15:30

Coffee break

15:30 – 16:00

Topic 5: Sustainable mobility and air quality, continued

Discussion (20 mins)

16:00 – 17:00

Topic 6: Envisioning the future to support a movement toward sustainable cities with clean air, Moderators: Dale Evarts, Former US EPA & Tomas Marques, UNEP

Presentation: Mobility and sustainable cities (10-15 mins), Video: How can utopian animations help us rethink our cities?, Piret Liv Stern Dahl, EIT Urban Mobility

Presentation: Sustainable cities (10-15 mins), Katja Schaefer

Discussion (30 mins)

17:00 – 17:30

Closing and Key conclusions, Katja Asmussen & Tomas Marques



Mike Holland, Ecometric Research and Consultancy, United Kingdom
Dorota Jarosinska, World Health Organization
Leo Stockfelt, Gothenburg University, and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden


Human health effects of air pollution is an area of concern that comes higher and higher on the air pollution policy agenda. Much research is ongoing, but more efforts are needed to continuously improve the way developed knowledge is communicated and understood in different parts of the world, how it can be used by policy makers, and understood by civil society. Correspondingly, this session will discuss such issues.

The session is arranged as a four-part discussion. The first part will cover a discussion on how the health impact of air pollution can be-, and currently is, estimated. The second part will discuss how communication of health impacts can be improved to promote faster action on air pollution. Following this, the third part will discuss experiences on successful ways to reduce health effects from air pollution. The session will conclude with the fourth part in which ways forward will be discussed considering the various exposure situations worldwide. The needs and options for further international collaboration will be reflected.

Examples of themes for the discussions

  • How do we estimate the health impacts of air pollution?
  • How do we improve communication of health impacts to promote action?
  • How do we reduce the health effects of air pollution through: Policy measures? Structural changes? Behavioral changes?

Provisional Agenda

08:30 – 08:45

Introduction, Mike Holland, Dorota Jarosinska, Leo Stockfelt

08:45 – 10:30

Part I: How do we estimate the health impacts?, Short presentations by Bertil Forsberg, Zorana J. Anderssen and Pierre Modo followed by discussion in plenum.

10:30 – 11:00

Coffee break

11:00 – 12:00

Part II: How do we improve communication of health impacts to promote action?, Short presentations by Alberto Gonzalez Ortiz, Anne Stauffer (pre-recorded) and Roman Perez Velazco, followed by discussion in plenum.

12:00 – 13:00


13.00 – 13.45

Part II: How do we improve communication of health impacts to promote action?, Short summary and reflections on the morning and discussion continued

13:45 – 15:00

Part III: How do we reduce the health effects of air pollution through: Policy measures? Structural changes? Behavioral changes?, Short presentations by Mike Holland, Ugo Taddei, Mikael Skou Anderssen (To be confirmed) followed by discussion.

15:00 – 15:30

Coffee break

15:30 – 17:00

Part IV: Ways forward, Short reflection on the day and “ways forward” from different science perspective Francesco Forastiere), civil society (Ebba Malmqvist) and policy perspective (TBD), followed by discussion.

17:00 – 17:30

Summary and wrap-up Key conclusions, Mike Holland, Dorota Jarosinska, Leo Stockfelt


Dominique Pritula, Environment & Climate Change Canada
Till Spranger, The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection, Germany



The Gothenburg Protocol review which compiles and evaluates the state of play of international air pollution science and policy from a UNECE perspective, is complete. On the basis of the review conclusions, this session will focus on which actions are needed to reduce emissions further to levels that approach the Convention´s long-term objectives. Discussions will include

  • how to improve or streamline the functioning of the amended Gothenburg Protocol , e.g. regarding the role and detail of technical Annexes and Guidance Documents;
  • how to cooperate with neighbouring issues/policy areas such as biodiversity, nitrogen management and climate change;
  • how to address that emissions outside the Convention‘s territorial scope increasingly affect air pollution levels in the UNECE area and vice versa, particularly –with respect to methane as an ozone precursor,
  • how to encourage further participation of non-Parties to the Protocols,
  • whether shifting from a focus on ratification to implementation could yield increased abatement measures, and
  • whether and which alternative / additional instruments are needed besides the existing Protocols.

Draft agenda


08:30 – 10:00

A. Gothenburg Protocol – where we are and where we can go, Introductions: Zig Klimont, Peter Meulepas

  1. What progress has been made in implementing the requirements of the amended Gothenburg Protocol (AGP) so far?
  2. Which sectors and/or pollutants pose the biggest challenge for the future?
  3. When do you expect to achieve ratification and full implementation? Possible in the next 10 years?
  4. What are the main barriers towards ratification and implementation of the AGP?

(Political-, financial-, institutional-, regulatory-, capacity & knowledge-, protocol-related barriers?)

10:00 – 10:30

B. Future role of the Gothenburg Protocol. Introduction: Olivera Kujundzic

  1. Do mandatory emission limit values (ELVs) in Technical Annexes (TAs) help non-Parties in implementing air pollution abatement and ratifying protocols?
  2. What could a „step-wise approach“ mean?
  3. Is the amended Gothenburg Protocol (AGP) considered a useful instrument?
  4. Should the policy focus shift from promoting ratification of the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (AGP) to implementation of abatement measures?
  5. Would voluntary agreements similar to the „Batumi Actions on Clean Air“ be of value? If so, how should they be implemented?

10:30 – 11:00

Coffee break

11:00 – 12:00

B. Future role of the Gothenburg Protocol, continued.

12:00 – 13:00


13:00 – 15:00

C. Linkages and synergies with other policy areas, Introductions: Allie Davis, Susanne Lindahl

  1. How and on which issues should the Convention cooperate effectively with other international entities that deal with neighboring issues and policy areas?
  2. How could the Convention set up negotiations or joint implementation mechanisms with non-UNECE countries, e.g. on emissions of methane as an ozone precursor, that would benefit all?

15:00 – 15:30

Coffee Break

15:30 – 17:00

D. Options to achieve long-term objectives of the Convention, Introduction: Dominique Pritula

  1. Which kind of follow-up policy measure(s) would you envisage based on the conclusions of the Gothenburg Protocol Review?
  2. What further assistance – besides financial support and further improvement of emission inventories and projections – would your country need most from CLRTAP as a whole?

17:00 – 17:30

 Wrap up/summary of key issues, Till Spranger and Dominique Pritula


Filip Moldan, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute
Mark Sutton, UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology


Nitrogen compounds contribute substantially to air pollution, including impacts on both ecosystems and human health. This session will discuss the latest evidence on the multiplicity of nitrogen effects and how a systems-approach focusing on reducing expensive wasted nitrogen resources could help accelerate action. We will use time between 8:30 and 17:30 on Tuesday, March 14. There will be a lunch break at 12 and coffee provided in breaks during morning and afternoon part of the session.

  • Agenda for the discussions
  • Coffee break 10:30 –11:00
  • Lunch break 12:00 –13:00
  • Coffee break 15:00 –15:30
  • Block 4 & 5 15:30 –17:00
  • Block 3 & 4 13:00 –15:00
  • Block 2 & 3 11:00 –12:00
  • Block 1 & 2 8:30 –10:30

The session will be broken down to 5 blocks in the following way:

  1. Introduction. The discussion will inform air pollution control priorities while considering the context of co-benefits for climate change, biodiversity loss, water quality and circular economy development. The most important development of the current legislation is the Gothenburg protocol review which has been completed by the end of 2022 link Länk till annan webbplats. followed by the INMS Colombo declaration link Länk till annan webbplats. with two accompanying UNEP declarations (UNEP/EA.4/Res.14 Länk till annan webbplats. and UNEP/EA.5/Res.2 Länk till annan webbplats.) which together leads the way towards the National Nitrogen Action plans, and finally the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted by the UN CBD which in Target 7 aims at “reducing excess nutrients lost to the environment by at least half including through more efficient nutrient cycling” by the year 2030 link Länk till annan webbplats. (Official doc: CBD/COP/15/L.25 Länk till annan webbplats.) Apart from setting the stage in this way, the introductory part of the session will be opened for including additional topics which may be raised by the session participants.
  2. Ecosystem effects. Current trends in N emissions: Is the N pollution decreasing as fast as we have expected? Effects of NHy and of NOx on ecosystems, calculations, use and further development of critical loads and critical levels. Is there an adverse “alkaline air” effect on vegetation? What are our best arguments that N pollution has to be reduced?
  3. The status of the intergovernmental processes, what are the links between (or conflicts) with respect to goals (e,g, 2030) of the policies aiming at air pollution, climate, and biodiversity protection (c.f. Introduction). To what extent is the ambition of these processes harmonized?
  4. Mobilizing change. How do we achieve maximum and fastest progress. Defining nitrogen price and viewing N as a resource as well as a pollutant might be increasingly important way of approaching the problem when new technologies increase demand for nitrogen (such as e.g. use of NH3 as a fuel). What are the tools best suited to achieve the change? Such as e.g. N-budgets, NUE, N-footprint etc. What are the most likely drivers of change?
  5. Wrapping up. Formulating the conclusions for the session report.

Supplementary questions for the discussions

  • How will population growth, changes in dietary preferences, future mobility and energy production affect nitrogen pollution?
  • How much is the recent tripling of nitrogen price accelerating investment in circular technologies to recover nitrogen in agriculture, wastewater and the wider food system?
  • Further developments of nitrogen budget techniques and other nitrogen assessment tools such as nitrogen footprint, nitrogen use efficiency etc. and how to involve more countries?
  • Which emerging technologies could lead to increase in ammonia emissions and therefore needs to be focused on?


Jesper Bak, Aarhus University, Denmark
Tim Butler, Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Germany
Isaura Rabago, Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology, Spain


This session will first discuss issues related to climate change in the Arctic and methane emissions. The mitigation of near-term climate warming will require substantial reductions in methane, which is also a major precursor of ground-level ozone. In addition, black carbon emissions have an especially strong influence on climate change in the Arctic. Over 100 countries have pledged to reduce global methane emissions by 30% by 2030. The measures required to achieve this reduction are well-known and cost-effective, but methane emissions from the agricultural sector, and methane concentrations in the atmosphere, continue to rise.

The second theme relates to methane, agriculture, and biodiversity. The livestock sector is a large source of ammonia. Projections indicate that methane and ammonia emissions from livestock are difficult to mitigate, and efforts to tackle emissions from livestock have been resisted by the agricultural lobby. Navigating the demands of farmers and consumers while preserving ecosystems, reducing air pollution, and mitigating near-term climate change is a major challenge. Climate change, air pollution, and threats to biodiversity are linked through cause-and-effect relationships at many levels. Similarly, policy solutions to tackling these problems must also be linked.

Agenda for the discussions

  • Moderation 8:30 –10:30: Tim Butler
  • Coffee break: 10:30 –11:00
  • Moderation 11:00 –12:00: Tim Butler
  • Lunch break: 12:00 –13:00
  • Moderation 13:00–15:00: Jesper Bak
  • Coffee break: 15:00–15:30
  • Moderation 15:30–17:00: Jesper Bak

Introduction and overview of the session
Speaker(s): Tim Butler

Links between air pollution and climate change

Speaker(s): Annica Ekman, HC Hanssen

  • What are the key drivers of air pollution and climate change in the Arctic?
  • How can the global climate impact of different air pollutants in future regulation be estimated?
  • How much methane mitigation will be required to meet climate and air quality targets?

Impacts of air pollution on biodiversity

Speaker(s): Felicity Hayes, Håkan Pleijel

  • How does ozone and nitrogen deposition affect biodiversity?
  • What are the major emission sources which should be mitigated to preserve biodiversity?

Scenarios for mitigation of methane emissions

Speaker(s): Lena Höglund-Isakkson

  • How are global and regional methane emissions expected to change in the future?
  • What is the effectiveness of the Global Methane Pledge?
  • In which sectors and regions can rapid reductions in methane emissions be made?
  • Which regions and sectors will be more difficult for methane mitigation beyond 2030?

Methane mitigation outside of the UNECE

Speaker(s): Valerie Fajardo

  • What are the priority sectors for methane mitigation outside of the UNECE?
  • How can mitigation of methane emissions be accelerated within existing legal frameworks?
  • What kinds of new trans-regional agreements are possible for methane mitigation?


Beatriz Cardenas, World Resource Institute
Kimber Scavo, United States State Department
Young Sunwoo, Konkuk University, South Korea


The goal is to discuss the best approach for international cooperation that will achieve the most air quality benefit. This session will focus on technical capacity, gaps in achieving air quality improvement, sector-based approaches, regional air quality frameworks, and the main issues facing cities and countries. It will be important to identify successes and potential gaps countries have experienced as well as what projects are needed and what areas lack resources. The session will address funding, both the lack of funding availability and the success in receiving funds. Integrated throughout the session will be an emphasis on infrastructure for integrated air pollution and climate change policies.

  • Co-chairs: Beatriz Cárdenas, Kimber Scavo, and Young Sunwoo
  • Panel 1 Facilitator: Kimber Scavo
  • Panel 2 Facilitator: Beatriz Cardenas
  • Panel 3 Facilitator: Young Sunwoo
  • Participants: experts working in countries beyond the UNECE region in Asia/Latin American/Africa, International organizations/countries, member of the FICAP, local initiatives/non-profits, others interested in the topic


08:30 – 09:15

1. Overview Presentations, Facilitator: Kimber Scavo

  1. Goal of session, introduction of the panels, overview of key questions, Kimber Scavo
  2. Task Force on International Cooperation of Air Pollution (TFICAP), John Salter, Co-chair FICAP. Presentation on the global dimension of air pollution including effective air pollution control measures that are applicable at a local, regional & global scale, and implementation of policies that shift environmental problems into other countries.

09:15 – 10:30

2. Panel 1: What are the gaps and needs in air quality management, Facilitator: Kimber Scavo

  1. The goal is to develop recommendations for international cooperation through sharing roadblocks, gaps and what is needed to improve air quality from country representatives and organizations working with countries on capacity-building. Panelists for 10-min presentations: Cristian Tolvett (Chile), John Mumbo (Kenya),Sellehah Okoth (Kenya), and Soraya Smaoun (UNEP)
  2. Panel questions
    i. What are your needs and the technical gaps in capacity for addressing air quality management - include highlighting whether legal and regulatory framework exists and/or is used effectively?
    ii. What major roadblocks exist and what capacity & resources/funding are most needed? iii. 30-minute Discussion and Q/A

10:30 – 11:00

Coffee break

3. Panel 2: Sector-specific solutions and best practices of local initiatives, Facilitator: Beatriz Cardenas

  1. The goal is to develop recommendations for international air quality cooperation through sharing one to two best practices from different sectors. Panellists could also highlight the need for resources and funding gaps. Panellists for 10-min presentations: Norberto Vidal (Argentina); George Mwaniki (WRI-Africa); Marcus Amann (Independent/World Bank); Dr Fu Lu (Clean-air Asia)
  2. Panel Questions
    i.What is one sector specific solution or best practice that has been successful? Would this solution work elsewhere?
    Ii.What are the barriers for these successful solutions to work elsewhere?
    iii. 30-min Discussion and Q/A

12:00 – 13:00


13:00 – 15:00

4. Panel 3: Regional Initiatives/Panel on helping countries help their neighbours: Discussion-based round table: Facilitator: Young Sunwoo

  1. The goal is to develop an approach for international air quality cooperation through sharing what would be needed for successful regional cooperation and initiatives. Panellists in 45-minute round-table discussion: John Salter (United Kingdom and Co-chair of TFCIAP), Dr. Fu Lu (Clean-air Asia), Marcus Amann (Independent/World Bank), Norberto Vidal (Argentina), Christian Tolvett (Chile), Soraya Smauon (UNEP), George Mwaniki (WRI-Africa), Beatriz Cardenas (WRI), Kimber Scavo (United States)
  2. Panel Questions
    i. How can we replicate the CLRTAP infrastructure [what parts of CLRTAP can be adopted in other regions]
    ii. Should we focus on bottom-up or top-down policies or some combination of the two? Any good examples?
    iii. What integrated solutions can address air pollution, climate and biodiversity?
    iv. Questions from the audience

15.00 – 15.30


15:30 – 17:30

4. Panel 3: Regional Initiatives/Panel on helping countries help their neighbours: Discussion-based round table, continued

5. Finalize conclusions and recommendations, Facilitator: Kimber Scavo

For questions, please contact:

Stefan Åström, stefan.astrom@anthesisgroup.com
Anna Engleryd, anna.engleryd@naturvardsverket.se
Peringe Grennfelt, peringe.grennfelt@ivl.se

Sidan senast ändrad: 2023-03-10
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